Wednesday, September 9, 2009

State Suffrage Movements

---latest constitution: 1876
--- w/s was raised during CC1868/69 but was rejected by convention
---1875CC--2 resolutions for w/s intro'd, but neither made it out of committee (HY of TX handbook URL: ____)
---TX ERA organized in 1893--dissension in ranks-->ceased to function by 1896. From Creating the New Woman by Judith N McArthur:
KY's Laura Clay used Henry Blackwell's strategy of statistical white (woman) supremacy as basis for organizing NAWSA's Southern Comittee. 1893 TERA organized with her help. (11o)
---TERA didn't use race-->used Seneca Falls/SBA language--equal justice & natural rights-->no taxation w/o representation, consent of the governed, etc. (110)
---Argument over SBA visiting Atlanta in 1895 (former abolitionist in racist/ex slave city) killed early TERA group (mix of Yankees & Southerners) (111)

---LA women taxpayers got to vote on tax issues in 1898 (CC of 1898) (Judith N McArthur, 110; HWS, vol 3, 681)
Elizabeth Lyle Saxon and Caroline E Merrick went before LA legislature in 1879 to petition for woman suffrage (HWS Vol 3 pg 678)
---1892-Portia Club (suffrage organization) organized by Merrick. 1896-LA state suffrage association (679-680). SBA visited in 1895 on her Southern tour.
---1898--group of suffragists petitioned suffrage committee for "Full Suffrage for the educated, taxpaying women of LA", based on a bill which had been intro'd. Carrie Chapman Catt came to speak (1898) as did Frances Griffin of Alabama (681)

---proposal for w/s died in committee during 1890CC
--"A proposal to enfranchise women who owned or whose hubands owned $300 worth of property was considered by the MS CC of 1890, as they looked for ways of countering black voting without risking congressional censure. A Elizabeth Taylor, "The Woman Suffrage Movement in Mississippi," in Journal of Mississippi History 30 (February 1968), 207-211. And MS Proceedings CC1890, pg 79 and 134. After MS politicians considered the use of w/s to solve "the negro problem," suffragists were sufficiently encourage to promote this idea before subsequent disfranchising conventions, beginning with the next such convention in South Carolina in 1895. Bellows, Virginia Durant Young, pg 54-88. (Wheeler, pg 204, fn 42)
J of MS HY: F336 .J68

---first w/s org in 1881 (AWSA)
---AESA organized in 1888
---AESA dispersed in 1899 when organizer died
---started back up in 1911 Encyclopedia of Arkansas

South Carolina
North Carolina

From Elna Green, SS:
(92)The frequent use of this statistical argument has led numerous historians to contend that southern antis and suffs, whatever else their differences, were identical in their support for white supremacy.92 Such an interpretation might seem valid, considering the vigor with which some southern suffragists, like Louisiana's Kate Gordon, endorsed white supremacy. Gordon and others claimed that black disfranchisement, obtained by questionable means and maintained only by constant vigilance, would ultimately be reversed. The disfranchising clauses, based as they were on literacy and property requirements, would eventually "act as a stimulus to the black man to acquire both education and property," making disfranchisement null and void.93 Gordon argued that southern legislatures should enfranchise women, thus helping to(page 93) tip the scales in favor of the white majority. Gordon claimed that woman suffrage could legally do what the current state constitutions had illegally done: insure a white supremacy over the electorate.
Gordon's extreme position, however, did not represent that of the majority of southern suffragists. Most southern suffs found the statistical argument so appealing because it allowed them to sidestep the race issue. 94 As the North Carolina Equal Suffrage Association wrote, "it would be impossible to raise the color issue on the equal suffrage amendment, because there is no mention of color, and color cannot be dragged in by the utmost strain on construction."95 The statistical argument was a moderate means used by women who wanted to clam white southerners' fears of black suffrage without engaging in race baiting."

Sunday, September 6, 2009

Thesis Reading List

DuBois, Ellen Carol. Feminism and Suffrage: The Emergency of an Independent Women's Movement in America, 1848-1969. Cornell University Press, 1999. HQ1423 .D8
---"Postwar politics provided the setting within which feminists came to recognize that the only force capable of bringing about radical change in the condition of women's lives was the organized power of women themselves." (19)
---Post-war suffragists realized independent movement was necessary. (19)
---"...its basic characteristics were set in the Reconstruction period: it was an independent reform movement, composed primarily of white, middle-class women, which defined women's emancipation and equality largely, although not exclusively, in terms of the franchise." (20)

Cott, Nancy. Bonds of Womanhood: "Women's Sphere" in New England, 1780-1835. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1977. HQ1418 .C67 Also NetLibrary.

Evans, Sara. Born of Liberty: A History of Women in America. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1997. Own.
---Women created voluntary associations which existed between public and private, created new public spaces. Found a way into public life and influenced the broader history of men and women. (3)
---17th century-->public/private-->strict delineation. Education, business, health, and welfare-->private/family realm. Politics and religion also private/personal, more based on kinship/family ties. (3)
---women "had access to private sources of social controls over public action." (3)
---pg 122: disagreement on the 15th amendment-->more focused on women's movement
---Women have redefined the boundaries of public/private and citizenry

Hewitt, Nancy A. Women's Activism and Social Change: Rochester, New York, 1822-1872. _____: Lexington Books, 2002. HQ 1439 .R62 H48 2001
---Identifies three groups of women in Rochester: benevolents, perfectionists, and ultras.
---"Although all were white, Protestant, and usually middle-class, they came from different regions and social strata and retained distinctive features throughout the period. Viewing these women, Hewitt challenges the orthodox view that revivalism stimulated white middle-class women to extend their sphere from charity to moral reform and eventually to suffrage. "
---(18) Historians of the 19th-century women have generally been more attentive to struggles between the sexes than to those among women themselves. They have also been more attentive to the private than the public sphere. While recognizing the achievements of a few publicly prominent women reformers and the large network of female societies that supported their efforts, historians of women, particularly those studying the decades before the Civil War, have focused the greatest attention on female experience within the domestic arena. These historians have claimed that the defining characteristic of that experience in Greater New England was the separation of men's and women's spheres. In the colonial era, shortages of women and of labor, the small scale of community life, and the frontier environment temporarily blurred the lines between public and private and male and female domains. But in the first half of the 19th century, men once again firmly grasped the reigns of public economic and political power while simultaneously cloaking women in a mantle of spiritual and moral guardianship that was rhetorically expansive but pragmatically restrictive. Viewing early 19th century women as increasingly relegated to home and church and the domains themselves as increasingly relegated to the periphery of social power and authority, women's historians have elaborated women's private lives in fine detail. The tenets of "true womanhood"--piety, purity, domesticity, and submissiveness-- which accompanied the privatization of female experience were initially interpreted as signs of woman's defeat at the hands of the Jacksonian era's "true man," who was aggressive, virile, competitive, and domineering. Gradually, however, true womanhood was recast as a source of female bonding and strength, and sorority was added to the list of mid-19th century woman's virtues. Scholars, faced with the problem of explaining the nearly simultaneous but seemingly contradictory emergence of "true womanhood" and women's public activism, then devised an intricate argument to account for the (19) transformation of pious, pure, domestic, submissive, and sororal women into social, and specifically feminist, activists by 1848.

According to the now widely accepted scenario, women's path to public prominence began at the hearth of the privatized family and the altar of religious revivalism. Within the family, women became inculcated with a sense of their moral superiority, while the churches, to which they flocked in far larger numbers than their male kin, assured them of their spiritual superiority. The forces that pushed women into domesticity also gave birth to increasingly visible social ills-- poverty, crime, delinquency, intemperance, prostitution, and vagrancy. When evangelical ministers of the 1820s and 1830s began citing irreligion and materialism, both fostered by male-dominated economic and political institutions, as the causes of such problems, they inspired women's entrance into the public realm. Inspiration was translated into action as the tenets of the Second Great Awakening spread across the country, demanding that all Christians apply their material and moral resources to public ills. Initially concerned only with ameliorating the plight of the old, the ill, the orphaned, and the destitute, urban women became the bearers of prayers for the profligate and alms for the poor. They soon discovered deeper and more extensive social problems, however, and gradually expanded their sphere of activity. Seemingly without economic or political power and therefore armed only with humanitarian motives, women moved beyond the confines of local charity to seek the universal abolition of vice, intemperance, and slavery. It was in these pursuits that women encountered debilitating barriers to their efforts based on the very femaleness that inspired their public labors. Some women were thereby led to initiate campaigns for their own social and political rights. The historical image thus emerges of a relatively homogeneous body of women-- white, middle class, Yankee, urban, and evangelical-- who left their private havens to purify the world under the banner of revivalism: they followed a lengthy, sometimes circuitous, but essentially singular path from benevolent associations through moral reform crusades to woman's rights campaigns. At (20) each step, even when demanding certain forms of equality with men, women activists confronted the masculine values of material progress with the feminine tenets of moral perfection.

This interpretation has provoked few challenges. First, it attests to the success of male-directed economic and political expansionism even while illuminating the seamy underside of the process. Second, it affirms women's collective strength in preserving both personal identity and moral values through the espousal of female virtues. THird, it bears witness to the dynamism of the urban environment as providing the necessary preconditions for progressive politics. Thus it simultaneously appeals to urbane modernization theorists and feminist scholars. Two historians, Ellen DuBois and Mary P Ryan, have questioned significant aspects of the scenario. DuBois claims that the woman's rights advocates of the pre-Civil War era were a distinct group within the plethora of women reformers because they alone challenged the rights of men to control the most powerful of all public domains, politics. Yet, while arguing that the woman's rights program was distinct, DuBois assumes that the program's advocates shared the Yankee, urban, evangelical heritage of their sister activists and that they similarly confronted men across the chasm of separate spheres. Ryan alone argues that men and women did not occupy wholly separate spheres and that they did work together, particularly for familiar and economic goals....Nevertheless, Ryan sees middle-class women as only temporary voyagers in the public pursuit of material and moral progress. She claims that "new domestic values, practices, and functions" were "incubated" in the public volunteer associations of the 1830s and 1840s, but that "the veterans of the reform era and their progeny" soon withdrew into "the conjugal family," which in the industrial age "itself became the cradle of middle-class individuals."

(21) To evaluate the dominant thesis and its challengers, I explore here three aspects of women's activism: the extensiveness, permanence, and position of women's public labors within he larger processes of social, political, and economic change; the extent to which women activists identified with or challenged men of their own social and economic circles; and the social and economic characteristics of various groups of women activists and their relations to the forms of activism pursued. These concerns can be analyzed best in a community setting: here one can capture the localized character of mid-19th century women's activism and can explore the finite links among ideological prescriptions about female behavior, the social and economic circumstances of women's daily lives, and the translation of both into public forms.


These changes reordered women's worlds in the 19th century, replacing 18th century dependencies-- embodied in extended kin groups, informal networks of community control and welfare, and the family as the locus of men's and women's labors-- with more highly structured, stratified, and segregated social formations. In Rochester, these changes nurtured a varied and vital community of women reformers. Evangelical, Quaker, and Unitarian; affluent, upwardly mobile, and marginally middle-class; married and single; pioneer and....

Ryan, Mary P. Cradle of the Middle Class: The Family in Oneida County, New York, 1780-1865. Cambridge University Press, 1983. HQ 555 .N7 R9
---"This book will focus on one manifestation of this dynamic relationship, the role played by changes in social reproduction in the markings of an American middle class." (15)
---"Cult of true womanhood":"gilded pedestal for a sexual division of labor and social roles." Men work outside home, women stay in home to take care of husband, be affectionate, and make a place for her man to relax and be comfortable. (189-190)
---Women have infinite influence over men by controlling home life. (190)
---Mid-century men and women were more separated than they had been in the past (191)
---This chapter (A Sphere is Not a Home): women worked outside the home, women's domestic labor impacted local economy, and women spent time outside domestic unit/marriage. (191)
---The bonds of domesticity: Women more likely to stay in home with family than men. Women, if they left the family home, were more likely to be servants in someone else's household. Most women went from family home to husband's home. They were more likely to reside with family after being widowed. (192)
---Women maintained close relationships with their mothers and female relatives in their household and this impacted their personalities. Reproduction of Motherhood. Fairly peaceful transition into adulthood because of emotional bonds/continuity. (194)
---"potential for marital tension that was built into the structure of gender at midcentury." (196)--close relationships with females/mother-->not necessarily close heterosexual relationships with husbands
---Women often existed in almost completely female circles (196).
---A World of Work: Housework, shared between women. Cooking became more than food preparation. Emphasis on domestic economy, nutrition and elaborate recipes. "private world of work and expertise" that only women possessed (198).
---About 20% of women mid-century "converted their domestic services... into a source of income." (Boarding) (201)
---Providing for the Public Welfare: "women's religious sphere," "The pious women of the 1860s did not, hwoever, confine their religious work within the boundaries of their own place of worship nor within family networks." (211) Women opened orphan and benevolent societies in the mid-century. (212-213) "In 1865 it seemed that women were poised to make an assault on the male sphere and were determined to take direct control of municipal social services." (213). ---"By midcentury women commanded through their charitible activities a vital post outside the home, one of crucial importance to the social order of the city. They had not, however, entered the formal public sphere nor the realm of capital. Their benevolence was still conducted under private auspices, not in an authoritive, legally sanctioned public arena." (217)
---Troubled Borders of Women's Sphere: "The gender system was full of tension, ever-changing, and even buffeted by some conscious protest movements. Both these tensions and this dynamic inhabitied women's sphere itself." (218)
---1/4 adult women of Utica were widows or spinsters, lived with relatives, had excess female labor in household which allowed for more benevolent/volunteer work (223).
---Mid-century: private and public more sharply defined. Public was expanding. Women/private. (234)
--"Specialized public agencies-- the schools, the police force, the poorhouse, the lunatic asylum-- assumed responsibility for many aspects of social reproduction. On the other hand, the private middle-class family claimed more autonomy and privacy in the socialization and acculturation of its own members." (235)
---"The family and women formed, in sum, a bloated, if not an expansive, social sphere. The veil of privacy merely and imperfectly camouflaged these extensive and essential components of the social system." (240)
---gendered isolation very important (240)--created gendered identity/group consciousness

Scott, Joan.

Tyler, Pam. Silk Stockings and Ballot Boxes: Women and Politics in New Orleans, 1920-1965. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2009. Dr. Mohr has this.

Saturday, February 21, 2009

Schedule for the next week or so

9-10: Interview with Institute of Reading Development
10:10-11: Office Hours
12:15-3:30-Reading/free time
4-6: ClubZ tutoring
7-9: FFP/VDay 09 Meeting

Tuesday: Reading and maybe tea

11:15-12:05: TA
12:15-1: Office Hours
1-5: Reading/free time
6-830: Class

Thursday: Spend time with Will & Read

10:10-11: Discussion Group A
11:15-12:05: Discussion Group B
12:15-bedtime: Spend time with Will, Read, & Write

Sunday, February 15, 2009

Week Two: Comps

This week we are reading Weber, Gellner, and Kohn. Guess how far behind I am? Too far. I'm reading Weber on the fricking internet because the schools copies are checked out and it was too late to order through amazon or ILL by the time I got around to it. I went ahead and ILL'd for Chatterjee, Colley, and.. whoever else is next.

Weber's thesis is fairly reminiscent of what we discussed in Dr. Mac's class. I wonder if I can find some a review or two that might help with him.

I'm going to call Michael about Gellner. I can't find that book for the life of me.

Pan-Slavism is much shorter and will be easier to scan on the computer than Weber but I'm not as familiar with the subject matter.

Oh how I miss Habermas, whose notes I'll be typing up sometime this week or so.

HY 592

About half the class is composed of teachers, I think I've mentioned that. I had hoped their input would be helpful, and to some extent it is. It reconfirms my dedication to never teach in public secondary education. Apparently, it is impossible to reconcile higher order critical thinking skills with middle and highs school students. Now, I remember doing it at Carroll, but I guess our richy-rich Blue ribbon school is an anomaly and I shouldn't base my expectations of high school students on my experiences at that school. I wouldn't mind teaching at a Quaker charter school. They seem to value service and learning.

Otherwise, the class is good. Dr. Devore is pretty cool and the readings are moderately interesting, but I wish the class was geared more towards college-level teaching. I want to create syllabi and learn how to refine my knowledge into lesson plans geared toward 100 & 200 level classes so that I can adequately adjunct in the coming year.

More on that later, I have to catch up the rest of this (and other) blogs.

Thursday, January 29, 2009

Week Two: Reading schedule for compositions

Sunday, February 8th, 6pm
-----Week One: Habermas, Wolff, Blum
Monday, February 16, 630pm
-----Week Two: Weber, Gellner, Kohn
Monday, March 2, 630pm
Week Three: Colley, Chatterjee, and Stokes
Week Four: Hobsbawm&Ranger, Komaroff
(optional) Sunday, March 8, 6pm
-----Use this meeting to cover any issues, questions, spillover from previous weeks
Monday, March 30, 6pm
-----Week Five: Goldman, Cherniavsky, Hochs
Monday, April 6, 6pm
-----Week Six: Gatrell, Hirsch, Goldhagen (excerpts), and Koonz

Thursday, January 15, 2009

HY592: 1st Class

The first class was good, there were several people I've known in previous classes: Mike, Kara, etc. About half the students in the class are primary/secondary school teachers getting their specialist degree and about half are graduate students pursuing traditional masters.

The reading load and papers don't seem too exhaustive and we'll be putting together a lesson plan and syllabus. I would imagine that the public school teachers' feedback will be invaluable. 

Tuesday, January 13, 2009

Meeting with Dr. Mohr regarding progressivism/populism in Alabama/the South

Meeting Notes:
These women fit best with the humanitarian wing of the progressive movement, but the progressive movement was undeveloped and practically non-existant in Alabama at that point (Sheldon Hackney points out that only 37 out of 155 delegates to the 1901 Constitutional Convention were progressives). These women were on their lonesome. **I should look at Elna Green again to see how my women work into her framework.** With the populist rebellion of the 1890s behind them, any radical movement in Alabama was unwelcome, even more unwelcome than the populists. The Black Belt Democrats wanted to control who could vote and limit the influence of "white"/northern counties. They wanted lower taxes, less regulations, and other than their interest with the railroad, pretty much wanted the government to leave them the hell alone. The suffragists goals would have required higher taxes, more government regulations, and more oversight, which would have jeopardizes the Black Belt county leaders who had frequently been involved with illegal elections and voter fraud.

Additional Reading: Sam Webb's book should be my next priority.

EH: Week One

Went over syllabus, figured out schedule for books and assigned weeks for annotated bibliographies/historiographies and book reviews.

I'm writing a book review on fascism/totalitarianism but the book hasn't been assigned yet. It'll be due the last week of class. My annotated bibliography and historiographical essay is due on March 3rd and is on Discipline & Punish: The Birth of the Prison by Michel Foucault. I look forward to the challenge.

Otherwise, the class looks really good. There are several familiar faces: Regina, Elizabeth, Nadine, Matt, and Michael. Michael & I will be taking European comps together so maybe we can set up some sort of reading group. Nadine and I have a semester of assisting together behind us, will be assisting Dr. Brazy together this spring, and now with this class together will prove to be a valuable ally in surviving this semester.

Wednesday, January 7, 2009

Thesis: Reading List

Alabama History:

Going, Allen J. Bourbon Democracy in Alabama, 1874-1890 (Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 1951. Reprinted 1992).
Status: Own. Unread.

Hackney, Sheldon. Populism to Progressivism (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1969).
Status: Borrowed. Partially Read.

McMillan, Malcolm Cook. Constitutional Development in Alabama, 1798-1901: A Study in Politics, the Negro, and Sectionalism (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1955. Reprinted 1978).
Status: Borrowed. Completely read with extensive notes.

Rogers, William Warren. The One-Gallused Rebellion: Agrarianism in Alabama, 1865-1896 (Baton Rouge: Louisana State University Press, 1970).
Status: Not borrowed. Unread.

Webb, Samuel L. Two-Party Politics in one One-Party South: Alabama's Hill Country, 1874-1920 (Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 1998).
Status: Not borrowed. Unread.

Wiener, Jonathan A. Social Origins of the New South: Alabama, 1860-1885 (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1978). 
Status: Not borrowed. Unread.

Southern History:

Williamson, Joel. Crucible of Race: Black-White Relations in American South Since Emancipation (New York and London: Oxford University Press, 1984).
Status: Borrowed. Unread.

Woodward, C. Vann. Origins of the New South, 1877-1913 (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1951).
Status: Own. Partially Read.

Women's History:

Bordin, Ruth. Women and Temperance: The Quest for Power and Liberty, 1873-1900(Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1981). 

Cott, Nancy. The Bonds of Womanhood: "Women's Sphere" in New England, 1780-1835 (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1977).

Du Bois, Ellen C. Feminism and Suffrage: The Emergence of an Independent Feminist Movement in America, 1848-1869 (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1980). 

Hewitt, Nancy. Women's Activism and Social Change: Rochester, New York, 1822-1872 (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1984).

Melder, Keither. The Beginnings of Sisterhood: The Women's Rights Movement in the United States, 1800-1840 (New York: Schocken, 1977).

United States History:

Goodwin, Larry. The Populist Movement: A Short History of the Agrarian Revolt in America (New York: Oxford University Press, 1978).

Goodwin, Larry. Democratic Promise: The Populist Movement in America (New York: Oxford University Press, 1976).

Monday, January 5, 2009

HY 592: Teaching of History

History on Trial: Culture Wars and the Teaching of the Past by Gary Nash $4.20 + $4.00 or 9.50 (shipping)= $8.20 or $13.70
Barnes & Noble: $14.35 + tax= $15.79 $1.99
Ordered: January 13, 2009

Knowing, Teaching, & Learning History: National and International Perspectives by Peter Stearns $19.55 + $4.00 or 9.50= $23.50 or 29.05
Barnes & Noble: $20.70+ tax= $22.77 $20.95 + $3.99 or $6.99= $24.94 or $27.94
Ordered: January 13, 2009

Teaching History for the Common Good by Keith C. Barton $26.95 + $3.99 or $5.99= $30.94 or $32.94
Barnes & Noble: $35.95+ tax= $39.55 $26.95 + $3.99 or $5.99= $30.94 or $32.94
Ordered: January 13, 2009

European Historiography

The Old Regime and French Revolution by Alexis de Tocqueville, translated by Stuart Gilbert $3.35+ $3.75 or $6.75 (shipping)= $7.10 or $10.10
** $1.99 + 3.99 or 6.99 (shipping)= $5.98 or 8.98
Received: January 7, 2009

The Making of the English Working Class by E. P. Thompson $15.36 + $3.75 or $7.70 (shipping)= $19.11 or $23.06
** $15.00 + 3.99 or 6.99 (shipping)= $18.99 or 21.99
Barnes & Noble: $22.50 + tax= $24.75
Received: January 9, 2009

Total: $30.97

Cheese & The Worms: The Cosmos of a Sixteenth-Century Miller by Carlo Ginzburg, translated by John and Anne C Tedeschi
** $14.95 (free shipping) or $17.95 (faster shipping) $11.95 + $3.99 or 6.99 (shipping)= $15.94 or 18.94
Barnes & Noble: $18.90+tax
Received: January 13, 2009

The Great War and Modern Memory (25th Anniversary Edition) by Paul Fussell
** $3.00+ $3.79 or $6.79 (shipping)= $6.79 or $9.79 $7.79+ $3.99 or 6.99 (shipping)= $11.78 or 14.78
Barnes & Noble: $17.99+ tax
Received: January 8, 2009

The Russian Revolution by Sheila Fitzpatrick $1.50 + $3.95 or $6.50 (shipping)= $6.95 or $8.00 (unavailable)
** $2.95 + 3.99 or 6.99 (shipping)=$6.94 or 9.94
Barnes & Noble: 13.82 + tax
Received: January 12, 2009

The Structure of Scientific Revolutions by Thomas S Kuhn
** $5.00 + $4.00 or $6.00 (shipping)= $9.00 or $10.00 $3.49 + 3.99 or 6.99 (shipping)= $7.48 or 10.48
Barnes & Noble: $10.53 + tax
Received: January 9, 2009

Total: $44.68
Grand Total: $75.65

[Edited: Friday, January 13, 4:47pm]

German Ideology by Karl Marx (Don't know what edition I should get)

I have a copy of these:

Discipline & Punish: The Birth of the Prison by Michel Foucault (unread)

Fires of Hatred: Ethnic Cleansing in Twentieth-Century Europe by Norman M Naimark (read in Dr. Mara Kozelsky's Comparative Nationalism course)

Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism (New Edition) by Benedict Anderson (read in Dr. Mara Kozelsky's Comparative Nationalism course but not discussed)

Orientalism by Edward W. Said (read in Dr. Mara Kozelsky's European Imperialism course)

World Systems Analysis: An Introduction by Immanuel Wallerstein (read but not discussed)

Sunday, January 4, 2009

Duke University

1. Laura F Edwards, 19th century women's history & legal history
2. Edward J Balleisen, legal history
3. William H Chafe, Alice Mary Baldwin Professor, women's history & economic history
Others: Glymph, Koonz, Gavis, Deutsch

: Applications must be submitted online by December 15th. If submitted before November 15, the fee is $65. After November 15, the fee is $75.
1. Transcripts;
2. Writing Sample (at least 10-15 pgs);
3. Letters of Recommendation
4. Statement of Purpose

1. 5-6 full time semesters
2. required courses
3. foreign language requirement
4. supervisory committee
5. continuous registration
6. preliminary examination
7. dissertation
8. final examination

Fall 2009
-301: course on historiography & theory. The primary goal is to introduce students to basic theoretical and historiographical readings in the discipline. The secondary goal is to encourage the creation of community among graduate students around intellectual ideas.
Spring 2010
-302: course on research methods and interpretation of primary sources. The primary goal is to introduce students to the process of finding and interpreting sources, with the emphasis on research as an intellectual project, not just a process of collection. Specifically, students will work different kinds of sources and become acquainted with different methodological approaches to those sources. The emphasis will be on working with the sources, rather than on producing a polished, article-length piece of written work. Students will have the opportunity to pursue their own individual research interests in 302, while also engaging in exercises and discussions that will broaden and deepen their understanding of that research.
-readings or research seminar

: To develop a basic familiarity with what distinguishes history as an academic discipline and how the concepts and methodologies used by historians overlap with and diverge from those of other disciplines. To have ranged outside my primary fields of interest in coursework, while also building on preexisting knowledge in a primary field, developing a familiarity with crucial scholarly debates in that field. To develop an independent scholarly agenda, reading beyond assigned books and articles, and forming at least tentative ideas of their likely preliminary examination fields, as well as the likely membership of their preliminary examination committee.

1. Identify central argument of scholarly works;
2. Access use of evidence by historians;
3. Place a piece of history into larger historical context
4. Interpret primary sources imaginatively & with attention to context

1. Produce clear and engaging prose;
2. Execute key disciplinary genres, such as book review & historiographic essay

1. Devise strategies to corroborate evidence in a primary source;
2. Familiarity with a range of research methodologies, including some approaches that extend beyond previous experience in historical research;
3. Familiarity in finding and using a wide range of historical primary sources;
4. Familiarity in identifying scholarship on a particular subject, through both traditional library techniques, and the use of web databases;
5. Familiarity with note-taking software, extending to significant experience in using such software to organize research work and assist in research-related writing;
6. Facility in developing compelling research questions from rich historical documents or from vibrant scholarly debates;
7. Facility in connecting those questions to plausible research agendas, with sensible methodological approaches, clear historiographic relevance, and accessible primary sources.

Seminar Participant
1. Ask good questions;
2. Engaged in constructive criticism of methodology & use of evidence;
3. Think of my feet;
4. Disagree agreeably & listen constructively

Fall 2010
-303: course on teaching and pedagogy. The goals of the course are to provide support for T.A.s in their first year in the classroom, and to allow students to develop teaching techniques and approaches they can draw on to create a teaching portfolio, for use on the job market and when they begin teaching their own courses.
-research seminar
Spring 2011
-research seminar

: Identify clear field of study. Deeper grasp of the relationship between history and its related disciplines in the social sciences and humanities, and a sharper sense of how to relate wide-angle synthetic views of the past to more particular scholarly inquiries.

1. Capacity to assess the strengths of scholarship, along with its weaknesses;
2. Skills in conceptualizing particular historical fields -- in periodizing change within those fields, and relating specific developments to more global contexts;
3. Language requirements.


1. Conceptualize a complex historical argument;
2. Complete two strong essays based on original research & reflecting solid historical logic (these essays will typically constitute the research component for the M.A. degree);
3. Engage effectively with constructive criticism -- when advisable, reconceive the basic contours of an historical argument, rework narrative flow, and/or tighten up presentations of evidence or historiography.

1. Ability to craft and refine a research problem of appropriate scale for a semester-long project; 2. Developed extensive familiarity with Perkins Library and its databases, building on the training provided in the first-year course on research methods (History 302);
3. Significant experience in working in archives beyond Duke, subject to the availability of funding to support such work;
4. Pursued extended detective work (both bibliographic and archival) in the research for the year's two research papers;
5. Kept track of "data" in a system that works for the individual student; most likely in some kind of database software;
6. Placed research findings within broader historical and historiographic frameworks; and shown the capacity to assess the strengths and weaknesses of the methodologies used in the two research papers, and as a result, possess a healthy respect for the difficulties of connecting historiographical debates to concrete research agendas.


1. Developed the basic skills of leading section discussions, fostering close readings by students, and responding constructively to student writing;
2. Develop the crucial skill of synthesizing large amounts of material into accessible public presentations, such as the lecture;
3. Begun to find my way around the key information technologies used in the collegiate teaching of history;
4. Begun the process of developing syllabi;
5. Begun the process of developing innovative assignments;
6. Begun to develop the basic skills of overseeing undergraduate research.

Seminar Participant
1. Leading a discussion in a graduate seminar context;
2. Engaged substantively, intensively, and constructively with the research and writing of fellow students, particularly in the context of research seminars;
3. Honed the skill of posing challenging questions in public settings, whether in seminars or public presentations;
4. Participated regularly in departmental, university, and area intellectual events, such as a lectures, seminars, or workshops

1. Develop grant-writing skill and applied for at least one competitive grant beyond Duke;
2. Attend at least one professional meeting, whether regional, national, or international.

Fall 2011
-304: course on prelims & dissertation proposal. Not graded. Any student who (1) submits a draft of their dissertation prospectus and (2) completes one field section of their prelim portfolio (verified by faculty examiner) by term's end will pass. The first part of the semester will include discussion of the following: 1. the certification requirements; 2. how to write a dissertation proposal; 3. how to apply for research fellowships; 4. how to revise a research paper for the purposes of publication. The remainder of the course allows students to pursue their individual work for prelims, in consultation with the professor.
-independent study with committee members
Spring 2012:
-independent study with committee members
Possible option: Do prelims and prospectus in second year (2010-2011).
Requirements: 301, 302, 303, 304, 1 research seminar, & 2 readings colloquia. Must have approval by advisors.
Also: Students are encouraged to take readings courses outside the department. Research seminars also may be from outside the department, as long as the primary result is a research paper, based in primary materials. Duke students can take graduate classes at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill , North Carolina Central University in Durham , and North Carolina State University in Raleigh , and at the University of North Carolina at Greensboro. UNC-Chapel Hill is the most frequently used of these options. The numbering system at UNC-CH differs from Duke's: UNC's 100-level courses are the equivalent of 200-level courses at Duke; UNC's 200-level is like Duke's 300-level.

University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill

Jacquelyn Hall, Southern women's history & oral history
Barbara Harris, Tudor, women, & family history

Deadline December 1st.
1. Official Transcripts from undergrad & graduate schools;
2. Writing Sample (thesis or portion of thesis);
3. Statement of Purpose. Commitment to study. Include any relevant details about your academic experiences, background, qualifications, or goals not already evident in other parts of the application. State independent research. Explains interest in study of history (and research interests). Specify clearly which field of History you wish to work in and with whom you would like to work if you attend UNC-CH.
4. At least 3 letters of recommendations;
5. GRE;
6. Application fee: $75.

Financial Aid: 5 years of financial support: tuition, health insurance, & an annual stipend ($14,400 for 2007-2008 academic year). The department also supplements this financial support with 3yrs of summer research funding. Exceptional applicants may be nominated for some of the 1yr & multi year competitive & prestigious fellowships awarded by the Graduate School at Chapel Hill.

Students with MAs: Have 2 fields of study: Major & Minor (2 courses). Become ABD in 4 semesters: language requirement (1st year), coursework, comprehensive exams, defend dissertation proposal.

Comprehensive exams: 1st year: take courses to help prepare you for your comprehensive exams & to build relationships with faculty members who will serve as your committee members. By end of 1st year, Compilation of reading lists, in consultation with the faculty examiners. Beginning of 2nd year: take comprehensive exam. Women & Gender History:
1. Purpose:
 Assess your competence to handle the sorts of large issues and trends that are part of both classroom teaching and professional historical discourse;
2. Preparation for Written Exam: 3 Exams with specific member of faculty. E
ach professor may pose the questions that she chooses, but you can expect that the questions posed will reflect your preparation with that member of the faculty. You'll not get your examination questions in advance, but you'll also not be totally surprised by questions you receive on the day of the examination.
3. Format for Written Exam:
 Each of 3 exams: 8 hours, get question to be answered, and what sources & aids are necessary. You may do your work wherever you like. Each exam word limit: 2500 words (10 pgs) and honor statement.
4. Scheduling: May take 3 exams separately but within 1st 2 weeks of semester.
5. Content: My Concentration: Women's history 1890-present
5a. GEOGRAPHICAL SPECIALTY. You will be examined on two adjacent time periods within general geographical area of your specialty;

5b. WOMEN'S HISTORY SPECIALIZATION. You write on your specialization in Women's History. You are responsible for the entire chronological spread of Women's History in US history;
5c. COMPARATIVE OR GLOBAL EXAMINATION. You answer one of the following: a question on Women's History in a geographical area outside your main specialization, a question on a comparative aspect of Women's History, or a question on a global aspect of Women's History.
6. Assessment: L (poor, must retake exam within 3 months), F (must retake exam within 6 months), L or F on 2+ parts will fail entire exam and must retake between 3-6 months after exam.
7. Additional Rules:
 Take History 209, 221, 222, and 387.

Rutgers University

1. Norma BASCH (Ph.D., NYU), Nineteenth-Century America, Women and Law;
2. Ann GORDON (Ph.D., Wisconsin at Madison), Nineteenth Century America; Stanton and Anthony Papers Project;
3. Nancy HEWITT (Ph.D., Pennsylvania), Nineteenth Century America, Social Movements, Comparative Feminism

Size: 15-20 students.

Application Requirements: Application form, 3 letters of recommendation, official transcripts, personal statement, writing sample, & GRE scores.

Deadline: Late November.

University of Iowa

1. Linda Kerber: US Women's History, Legal & Intellectual History
2. Johanna Schoen: 20th Century American Women's History of Sexuality, Women & Medicine
3. Leslie Schwalm: Slavery, Civil War, & Reconstruction, Women & African-American History, Southern History, 19th Century US History

Application Requirements:
1. GRE scores
2. Writing sample
3. Statement of Purpose
4. 3 Letters of Recommendation
5. Transcript
6. Application for Graduate Awards form

Deadline: December 1st-late December.

Students who have an M.A. in History from another university may apply directly to our Ph.D. program during the annual admissions cycle. The Ph.D. degree requires 72 credits of graduate course work (including the credits obtained for the M.A. degree), comprehensive examinations in three fields of history (distributed between two of our major divisions, as listed above) and completion of a doctoral dissertation under the direction of a member of the department. 

Applicants with an M.A. from another university may transfer up to 30 credit hours of graduate credit from their Master's program, if the credits are accepted by the University of Iowa's transcript service. This is the number of credit hours that students must complete for an M.A. degree in our program. Doctoral students thus need to complete an additional 42 hours of graduate credit for the Ph.D.

In addition to the course requirements, the comprehensive examinations and the dissertation, individual faculty may require their students to master one or more languages, to demonstrate proficiency in particular research methods (quantitative analysis, paleography) or to develop other skills as necessary for their fields of study and dissertation projects.

Funding: Iowa Fellowships: Funding from these sources come in multi-year packages, which usually include an initial year of fellowship support, followed by 2-3 years of teaching, and a 4th year of fellowship funding. Research Assistantship & the Graduate Instructorship: applicants to our program must fill out the "Application for Graduate Awards" included with the Graduate Admissions material in order to be considered for funding from these sources.

Research Assistantships: Stipend: $16k + instate tuition. We find that serving as an RA helps incoming students to get to know History faculty while adjusting to the Department and to Iowa City.

Graduate Instructor: Stipend: $17,500 + in-state tuition
1st assignment: discussion leader for sections of a survey course in which a faculty member delivers lectures to a large class. Such courses may have 200-300 students enrolled, & these large groups are divided into discussion sections of 22 students each. The GI meets with these students every week to go over course material and to discuss the assigned readings. The GI is usually responsible for grading the writing assignments & examinations for his or her sections, as well. Teaching discussion sections prepares GIs for their next teaching assignment

2nd assignment: GIs teach their own courses within our "Issues in Human History" curriculum. We have defined a number of "Issues," such as "20th Century Crisis" and "Gender in History," which have general course descriptions. Half of the content of each Issues course must be about non-U.S. material. Within these general guidelines, GI design their own sections of the issue they have chosen. They write the syllabus, choose the course texts, create the assignments and do all of the grading. Under the overall direction of a faculty supervisor, who is there to help with problems, to provide support and to ensure high-quality teaching, our GIs have excellent opportunities to grow as teachers of college level courses.

University of Wisconsin-Madison

1. Jeanne Boydston: Women's, Early Republic and Antebellum, social & cultural of 19th c.
2. Anne Enke: History of Sexuality
3. Nan Enstad: Women's 20th c., popular culture
4. Christina Greene

Deadline: December 1

Required Credits: To be eligible for the Ph.D., students must take a total of 32 graduate-level credits at UW-Madison.

1. Transcript
2. GRE scores
3. 3 Letters of recommendation
4. Writing Sample
5. Personal Statement: 2-3 pgs, While it may well include some autobiographical information, its real purpose is to acquaint us with how your mind works. We want to know what kinds of intellectual problems and issues interest you, whose stories intrigue you, what sorts of analytical or narrative approaches you like to pursue, which historical writings you admire – and your reasons for these various preferences. Please help us understand your decision to enter the historical profession and how you see your own role in it.

Financial Aid:
Decided in February. Not all get funded. A significant % of incoming students do not receive such support. Some receive project assistantships or a teaching assistantship. Aid for continuing students (second-year and later) takes a variety of forms. University Fellowships in this category are normally available only to students who have completed prelims and been admitted to dissertator status. Predissertators, however, are fully eligible for other categories of aid, including teaching assistantships, project/research assistantships, Foreign Language and Areas Studies (FLAS or Title VI) fellowships, and departmental fellowships.
1. Departmental Multi-Year Aid Packages: These provide four to five years of guaranteed aid to a select number of incoming graduate students. One or two years is in the form of a University Fellowship (see below); the remainder may take the form of departmental fellowships, assistantships, or external fellowships.
2. University Fellowships: In 2007-2008, University Fellowships for new graduate students include a stipend of $15,570, plus payment of tuition and fees and a $600 Vilas Welcome Week check issued in August to cover moving expenses. The History Department's Fellowships & Scholarships Committee reviews incoming applicants and submits nominations to the Graduate School early in the spring semester. The Graduate School announces the competition results in late February and the Department notifies recipients by mail. Direct any inquiries to the Department of History, c/o Graduate Funding Coordinator; do not call the Graduate School. Students must accept their awards by April 15.
3. History Department Fellowships: The Department's Fellowships & Scholarships Committee awards these fellowships, determining the number and size of the prizes according to the money available in the department’s trust funds. The Committee currently awards one-semester grants of approximately $5,000 - $7,000, the majority of which carry out-of-state tuition remission. In recent years these have been awarded to continuing students.
4. Teaching Assistantships: The History Department awards teaching assistantships based on a ranking system. The main factors used for the rankings include: (1) area of study, (2) the date of the M.A., (3) Ph.D. requirements completed, (4) number of previous semesters as a teaching assistant in the History Department, and (5) grade point average since entering the history grad program. Incoming students are first eligible for the rankings for second semester appointments.
5. Project/Research Assistantships and Grader/Readerships: Faculty members select the individuals they wish to employ in these positions and may occasionally offer them to incoming students. When funds allow, the History Department offers a project assistantship to work on graduate student retention and recruitment.

University of Minnesota

1. Sara Evans: gender analysis, family history, American women's history, social movements
2. Anna Clark: Irish history, history of sexuality, gender analysis, British and European history, The British Empire, history of women
3. Donna Gabaccia
4. Kirsten Fischer
5. Dubrow
6. Kunzel
7. Norling
8. Elaine Tyler May